Our research focuses on the factors and processes affecting creativity. Our LCD model for creativity, shown below, underpins our approach on how to cultivate creativity in organisations. LCD stands for Listen, Connect and Do. It builds on the ideas of design thinking by Kelley and Kelley (2013), Theory U by Scharmer (2009), as well as that of Csikszentmihalyi (1996), Amabile (1996) and Tan (2013).
The LCD model puts a person’s ‘state of being’ at the centre of the approach and highlights how it underpins other key aspects of creativity including listening, connecting, and doing. We define ‘state of being’ as the emotional, mental and physiological condition of a person. A key factor that affects a person’s state of being is purpose, as this has impact on their intrinsic motivation, engagement and perseverance.
Listen: In our LCD model, listening implies listening to (and observing) others as well as to our own selves, i.e. being open, aware, and attentive to our own ‘state of being’ as well as to that of others. This builds on the ideas of empathy and being aware of the feelings, needs and concerns of others to help gain new creative insights, as well as the ideas of reflection and gaining feedback from people on ideas being developed.
Connect: This is about engaging with others and being open to connecting with people we haven’t previously considered connecting with. Our concept of connecting again brings in the aspect of being self-aware of our own emotional, mental and physiological condition while connecting with others, and being open, aware, and attentive to new ideas and opportunities.
Do: Our concept of doing is about taking action, exploring, experimenting and prototyping, but doing so while being mindful of our own ‘state of being’. This relates to the ideas of play – play gives people permission to explore ideas in a non-linear manner including the exploration of ideas that might seem totally unrelated to the challenge at hand.
The LCD model not only focuses on listening, connecting and doing with a person’s ‘state of being’ at the centre but also emphasises the importance of the dynamic movement between these aspects. The symbol of a ‘non-trivial’ trefoil knot for the LCD model conveys that it is not possible to untie the different elements – each element is indelibly linked to the other.
More details on the LCD Model are given in Loudon and Deininger (2014) – see recent publications below.
- Amabile, T.M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J. and Herron, M. (1996): Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity, The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39, No. 5, October, pp. 1154-1184.
- Csíkszentmihályi, M. (1996): Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention, New York: Harper Collins.
- Kelley, T. and Kelley, D. (2013): Creative Confidence: Unleashing the Creative Potential Within Us All, New York: Harper Collins.
- Scharmer, C.O. (2009) Theory U: Learning from the Future as It Emerges, Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
- Tan, C.M. (2012): Search Inside Yourself: Increase Productivity, Creativity and Happiness, London: Harper Collins.
- Loudon, G. and Deininger, G. (2020). The Importance of Presencing in Creativity, In Gunnlaugson, O. and Brendel, W. (Eds.), Advances in Presencing Volume II: Individual Approaches in Theory U, Trifoss Business Press, pp. 131-154.
- Barker, J., Clifton, N. and Loudon, G., 2020. Perspectives on innovation within medium-sized firms in Wales. Welsh Economic Review, 27, pp. 6–17. DOI: http://doi.org/10.18573/wer.253
- Loudon, G. & Gordon, B. (2019) How student engagement has been enhanced through research into factors affecting creativity, Student Engagement in Higher Education Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 84-101.
- Loudon G. (2019). Integrating ideas from design disciplines into the STEM curricula, Special Issue of Higher Education Pedagogies: Creativity in STEM Higher Education Special Issue , Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 284-286.
- Loudon, G. (2019). How a sense of purpose can link creativity to happiness, The Conversation, , September.
- Clifton, N., Fuzi, A. & Loudon, G. (2019). Coworking in the Digital Economy: Context, Motivations, and Outcomes, Futures, July, DOI: 10.1016/j.futures.2019.102439
- Loudon G. (2019). Experiences of running a ‘Play and Creativity’ module in a School of Art & Design, In James, A. and Nerantzi, C. (Eds.), The Power of Play in Higher Education: Creativity in Tertiary Learning, Palgrave Macmillan.
- Loudon, G. (2018). Creativity can be the bridge between science and humanities education, The Conversation, October.
- Thomas, A., Dorrington, P., Costa, F., Loudon, G., Francis, M., and Fisher, R.(2017). Organisational learning capability in SMEs: An empirical development of innovation in the supply chain, , Cogent Business & Management, vol. 4, Issue 1. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2017.1364057
- Loudon, G.H., Zampelis, D. and Deininger, G.M. ‘Using Real-time Biofeedback of Heart Rate Variability Measures to Track and Help Improve Levels of Attention and Relaxation’. ACM Creativity and Cognition Conference, 27th-30th June, Singapore, 2017.
- Loudon, G.H. and Deininger, G.M. The Physiological Response to Drawing and Its Relation to Attention and Relaxation. Journal of Behavioural and Brain Science , 7, 111-124. 2017. https://doi.org/10.4236/jbbs.2017.73011
- Coleman, S, Treadaway, C., and Loudon, G. ‘Avenues, Values, and the Muse: An ethnographic study of creative activity to support the wellbeing of residents living with dementia in residential care’. 10th Internal Conference on Design and Emotion, 27th – 30th September, Amsterdam, 2016.
- Loudon, G. and Deininger, G. ‘The Physiological Response during Divergent Thinking’. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 6, 28-37. 2016. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2016.61004.
- Fuzi, A., Clifton, N. & Loudon, G.H. ‘New spaces for supporting entrepreneurship? Co-working spaces in the Welsh entrepreneurial landscape’, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of entrepreneurship, innovation and regional development, Sheffield, UK, June 18-19, 2015.
- Watkins C. A., Loudon, G. H., Gill, S. and Hall, J.E. ‘The Challenges of taking a User-Centric Approach within developing countries: A case study of designing medical solutions for Zambia’, Proceedings of the 11th European Academy of Design Conference, Paris Desartes University, Boulogne Billancourt, France, April 22-24, 2015.
- Loudon, G.H. & Deininger, G.M. ‘A new model for supporting creativity in research organisations‘, The R&D Management Conference, Stuttgart, Germany, 3rd-6th June, 2014.
- Fuzi, A., Clifton, N. & Loudon, G.H. ‘New in-house organizational spaces that support creativity and innovation: the co-working space’, R&D Management Conference, Stuttgart, 3rd-6th June, 2014.
- Watkins, C.A., Loudon, G.H., Gill, S., and Hall, J.E. ‘Can design thinking be used to improve healthcare in Lusaka Province, Zambia?‘, International Design Conference, Dubrovnik – Croatia, 19th – 22nd May, 2014.
- Deininger, G.M. ‘Does State of Being and Dynamic Movement have a relationship with Creativity?‘, PhD Thesis, Cardiff Metropolitan University, 2013.
- Loudon, G.H., Gill, S.J. & Wilgeroth, P. ‘Impact of a change of environment on autonomy and design exploration’, International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, Dublin, 5th – 6th September, 2013.
- Loudon, G.H., Deininger, G.M. & Gordon, B.S. ‘Play, Autonomy and the Creative Process’, 2nd International Conference on Design Creativity, Glasgow, UK, 18th-20th September, 2012.
- Deininger, G.M., Loudon, G.H. & Norman,S. ‘Modal Preferences in Creative Problem Solving’, 5th International Conference on Spatial Cognition, in Rome, Italy, 4th – 8th September, 2012.
- Loudon, G.H., Deininger, G.M. & Wilgeroth, P. ‘The Importance of Play and Creativity in the Design Curriculum’, International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, Antwerp, 6th – 7th September, 2012.
- Deininger, G.M. ‘The Cohesive Classroom’, 8th Global conference on Creative Engagements: Thinking with Children, Oxford, 29th June – 1st July, 2012.
- Deininger, G.M. and Loudon, G.H. ‘Correlation between Coherent Heart Rate Variability and Divergent Thinking’ at the Creativity and Cognition 2011 Conference in Atlanta, Georgia from 2nd-6th November, 2011.
- Loudon, G.H. and Deininger, G.M. ‘The Relationship Between Play, Prototyping and Creativity’ at DESIRE ’11, the Second International Conference on Creativity and Innovation in Design, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, on 19-21 October, 2011.